The agriculture of Africa, with few exceptions has been dominated by small scale agriculture with a predominant subsistence motivation. Productivity has remained relatively static and there certainly has not been the agriculturally led economic growth that happened through the Green Revolution of Asia, of the expansion of Agriculture in South America. Increases in population have increased areas cultivated rather than production leading to cultivation of more marginal lands and questions of sustainability. The challenges to changing this situation are substantial but must be addressed by African institutions assuming responsibility for establishing the policy and market environment, prioritizing the research agenda and establishing the capacity for research. New approaches to extension are needed and evolving. African leadership is emerging and placing increased emphasis on African solutions and scientists with regional networks to achieve the economies needed. Successful models for change all empower the local scientists/innovators. Development of access to markets and demand are as important as technologies that increase productivity. Market inelasticity is a major challenge to the adoption of input technologies.