Saturday, 15 July 2006

New Directions in Soil Amelioration of Arid Ecosystems with the Use of Atmosphere Moisture Condensation.

Zalibek G. Zalibekov II, Anver M-R. Mirzoev, Marat A. Balamerzoev, and Alamudin K. Shihragimov. Caspian Institute of Biological Resources of Daghestan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciencies, M. Gadjiev 45, Makhachkala, 367025, Russia

Today desertification processes spread to large territories of arid regions of the world, which develop in three directions:1) formation of deserts of continent origin in extra arid conditions with the coefficient of moistening K(C)<0,05; 2)land ecosystems degradation in arid climatic conditions with coefficient of moistening K=0,2-0,5; 3)hesitation of vegetation cover productivity in dependence of temperature regime and precipitation variation. Every year in 80 countries of the world 5-7 mln. ha of lands with high productivity degrade under the impact of desertification and become useless for agro culture [1]. The main reason of it – is deficiency of atmospheric moistening and lack of moisture in soil profile in semi desert and desert conditions. In the same time, it is known that the origin of all fresh water is water steam. In the system of “soil - atmosphere” regular daily moisture exchange takes place. In Atmosphere there is 14,000 km3 of water in the form of steam, and about 1,200 km3 in the bed of a river. From the surface of land and ocean 577,000 km3 of water evaporate, so many existe in the form of precipitation. But River annual runoff compose only 7% of the total quantity of precipitation. Atmosphere water is renewed 45 times a year [2]. On the land surface average absolute moisture forms 11 g/m3, in tropical regions it is about 25 g/m3 and more [2]. Warm atmosphere air in mole-drainage system becomes cool and the part of its water steams is condensated on the walls of drainage and moisten soil [3]. The main water source is moisture of atmosphere, which almost is not used for water regime improvement in soil and for increase of agroculture lands productivity. Given Analysis proves the worth of the use of vaporous atmosphere moisture by storing it in upper horizons of soil for increase of biological productivity. On the basis of this research, new ways and methods of vaporous atmosphere moisture in desert and semi desert soil of Pricaspiskaya lowland are worked out and experimentally investigated. Worked out “Working organ of moler” [4], that doesn't have analogues in the world, makes a lot of crotovinas, pores and cracks under soil on the depth of 0,6-0,8 m without deterioration of genetic horizons of soil and relief, conserving natural vegetation. It highly raises regular daily moisture exchange in “soil - atmosphere” system and contributes to storing of condensational atmosphere vaporous moisture in meter layer of soil on 22,2 mm/ha per month. It contributes to rise of bioproductivity for 30-50% of degraded pasture soil of desert and semi desert. Worked out method of vaporous moisture condensation in soil is also very effective [5] with the use of special materials conserving natural state of under soil layers, which contributes to storage of condensational vaporous atmosphere moisture in meter layer of the soil per month on 49,4 mm/ha, more than in natural conditions.

Table. Inter monthly content of moisture in soil in hot period of the year in arid conditions in different ways of its condensation (mm/ha)

Years Difference to control 1990 1991 1992 1993 ìì % Control (Natural pasture) 93.58 156.10 130.57 110.35 122.65 – 100.00 Moling by new working organ 95.95 177.69 164.36 141.36 144.84 22.2 118.1 Method of condensation of vaporous moisture in soil 112.54 203.83 182.55 189.09 172.00 49.4 140.2

Storing of condensational vaporous atmosphere moisture in soil contributes to improvement of natural forage areas use, creation of forest shelter belts in condition of desert and semi-desert. Use of vaporous atmosphere moisture in soil is new direction in amelioration of soils effected by arid degradation.

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