Saturday, 15 July 2006

Anthropogenically Transformed Grounds in the Conditions of Industrial Dumps Recultivation.

Farida E. Kozybaeva, Inst of Soil Science, Akademgorodok 60, Turkebaev 63, apt.127, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Anthropogenically transformed grounds in the conditions of industrial dumps recultivationUserUser232005-09-13T10:38:00Z2005-09-21T09:20:00Z2005-09-21T09:20:00Z15122920KB Etey246342611.5604 Technogenically disturbed ecosystems have been formed due to lead-zinc ore extraction in the West Kazakhstan. The industrial dumps, consisting of psephitic rocks at the bottom and in some cases mixed with fine-earth rocks, have appeared at the place of natural landscapes with zonal leached chernozems. The hydrodumps of red tertiary clay (nonsaline), tailing dumps and quarries of 250 meters depth have been formed. The technogenic complexes with negative elements of relief (gaps, falls, and slides) have appeared on the objects, subjected to mining. Technical and biological recultivation of 50-meter industrial dumps was carried out in 1979. Loamy clay and tertiary clay were spread on the levelled surface of the dump. Experiment treatments: loamy clay (25 cm) + dump; loamy clay (20 cm) + technogenic sand (35 cm) + dump; loamy clay (30 cm) + broken sand (30 cm) + dump; tertiary clay (20 cm) + dump. Leguminous-cereal herbs and wood-shrub species were used as phytoameliorants: Acer negundo L., Betula pendula Roth. Pinus silvestris L., Populus laurifolia Ldb., Caragana arborescens Lam, Cotoneaster licida Schlecht, Juniperus sabina L., Ribes aureum Pursh, Rosa spinosisalma, Spiraea billiardii Dipp. Agropyrum sibiricum, Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski, Orobrychis arenaria (Kit.) Dc.x transcaucasica Grossh., Medicago sativa L. After the experation of 25 years the researches showed that the initial soil formation is in process in the ground, spread on the dump. The movement of dust-clay fraction into the lower layers of grounds (lessivage) and "minihorizons" of different colors and composition are observed. The upper horizon is darker and less compact. The surface layers of grounds (0-2.5 cm); (2.5-6 cm) are touched by the initial processes of soil formation. The root system of phytocoenoses penetrates to 30 cm and even deeper. The rocks are not subjected to the process of effervescence (the rocks are initially carbonate), i.e. the process of leaching is observed. The researches showed that the soil microbo-zoocoenoses, typical for zonal soils, appeare in grounds. Numerous groups of Oribatei and Collembola --pioneers of soil formation were found in the studied soil-grounds. The following genera Zygoribatula, Scheloribates, Nothrus, and Gypogastrura dominated among Oribatei. The following representatives of mezofauna were found: Formica rufa L., Apis mellifera L., Apion apricans, Haphylinidae, Zabrus tenebrioides, Coccinella septempunctata L., Cetonia aurata, Eurydema maracandica and also larvae of bugs, caterpillars of butterflies, shells of Gastropoda The bioproductivity of phytocoenoses and analytical data show that the organic matter and biogenic elements get into soil-grounds due to plant debris and their root system. So, organic matter (humus) made up 2.3% in loamy rock, 1.25% of humus was in initial condition. Initially humus made up 0.2% in tertiary clay. Humus made up 1.41% in conditions of biological recultivation over the last 25 years. As V.O.Targulyan and A.L.Aleksandrovsky specify, plants and microorganizms in its development conduct the soil and as a result an effect of backlog occurs. Thus phytocoenoses and pedobionts play a leading role in transformation of grounds in the conditions of biological recultivation. Only the upper layers of grounds are subjected to the initial processes of soil formation over 25 years of recultivation.

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