Saturday, 15 July 2006

Mapping of soil environmental hazards in urban areas.

Jaroslava Sobocka and Marian Jaduda. Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute, Gagarinova 10, Bratislava, Slovak Republic

Presentation is focused on research and assessment of environmental risk resulting from soil and substrate contamination of urbanized areas. It is included also possible risk elements transfer into contact spheres and other hazards connected with various degradation forms of urban soils. Urban soils are perceived as a part of urban ecosystem what is based on: (A) concept of urban pedotope to be studied from viewpoint of spatial differentiation of urban soil cover (pattern), (B) concept of pedo-urban ecosystem in aspect of ecosystem approach considering quality of urban soils. Quality of urban soils is directly related with numerous and diverse soil functions in urban areas, i.e. there are very heterogeneous demands on soil quality by various groups of urban population. Concept of urban soil functions (incl. soil quality measurement and assessment) is considered as a base for legislative measures for urban soil and urban ecosystem protection. There are presented some obstacles of urban soil survey processing not only current pedological data sheet information but it is complemented by other characteristics referring soil hygiene, quality of ground water, soil erosion, remnants of original soil horizons, pollutants distribution, technogenic substrate diagnostics, anthroskeleton description, etc. Urban soils with altered soil morphology and properties can reveal new soil types not presented in current classification system. Therefore, there is declared increased demand on soil scientist experience and skills. As an example of soil environmental hazards mapping we will demonstrate methodical procedure of environmental risk assessment used for pilot project of Bratislava (capital of Slovakia). It consists of: 1. identification and delineation of pedo-urban ecosystems, i.e. urban ecosystems related to soils (e.g. industrial areas, residential quarters, traffic infrastructure, recreation areas, commercial areas, kindergarten, etc); ortho-photo maps scanned in July 2000 have been used as a base for delineation (scale 1: 5,000, digitalization into scale 1:25,000), 2. assessment of quality of urban soils by detailed soil survey of urban pedotopes: (a) selection of soil profiles representing urban ecosystems appearing in the territory, (b) measurement and assessment of analytical data of these profiles, (c) measurement of surface soil contamination, (d) map of urban soils of city Bratislava compilation and creation, 3. categorization and delineation of areas actually and potentially threatened by risks resulting from soils, use and comparison of several methods of graphic data processing (conventional method, fuzzy k-means, ordinary krieging, neural net), 4. identification of key hazard areas for urban soil monitoring and proposals of legislation principles for urban soils protection in Slovakia.

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