Saturday, 15 July 2006

Using of Bioindicators in Soil-Ecological Researches.

Kamil Sh. Kazeev, Rostov State University, B. Sadovaya str., 105, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russia

The anthropogenous influence which has reached now huge distribution and frequently causing degradation of an environment, can be minimized under condition of duly definition. Now the big set of methods and the parameters is developed, allowing successfully to perform this work. Thus methods of biological indication possess a line of advantages in comparison with others. First, it is high sensitivity and responsiveness external influences, second, they allow to track negative processes at early stages of process, in the third, only on them it is possible to judge the influences which are not subjecting to essential change material structure soil (radioactive and biocid pollution). It is possible to attribute the big spatial and time variability to essential lacks. With a view of definition of applicability of biological indicators at research of various anthropogenous influences (agricultural use, local soil hydromorphism, pollution, etc.) last 10 years has been executed the comparative analysis of the different parameters describing a biological condition of the soil. Investigated vegetation, fauna, microflora, biochemical properties and other parameters of the most widespread the South of Russia soils, and also a complex integrated method of an estimation of the biological activity, uniting number of parameters. It does not belittle importance of the analysis of each concrete soil parameter (microbiological, zoological, biochemical properties, humus condition etc.). The integrated estimation of biological activity can serve as a simple parameter of a genetic estimation of the various soil individuals, including all taxonomy a spectrum, from a version up to type, and also to serve as a genetic parameter of a biology-geographical variety of soils. Therefore for diagnostics and monitoring of soil it is expedient to use of the integrated parameter of biological condition (IPBC), which includes a set of parameters biogenic and the biological activity, chosen on several criteria. IPBC, as shown is stable enough parameter earlier and in same soil during different seasons and years differs no more, than on 3-9 % while separate parameters in some cases vary very strongly (more than on 300 %). Complex studying of soils biology carried out in three aspects: geographical, profile-genetic and time. As a result of researches the numerous data have been received, allowing to estimate a biological condition of the South of Russia soil, occupying the predominating areas and on the basis of application of an integrated parameter of biological condition. It is revealed, that virgin soil variants have the greatest divergence. Arable horizons various of the soil in different natural zones of the South of Russia under the characteristics are rather equalized, getting the properties favorable for leading agricultural crops. The level of fertility geographically zone of soil, as a whole occupying prevailing territories, depends on biological properties. Intensity of a life determines also a possible level of reproduction of this life. Points of soil estimation, objectively reflecting a level of fertility of the soil in this case for field cultures, coincide with the IPBC. In points of estimation productive ability of soil is shown, i.e. As far as one ground is better or worse another at identical economic expenses. Various biological parameters have shown high efficiency at research of different influences on soil of the South of Russia. Peak efficiency biochemical parameters (especially-have shown activity of soil enzymes), described by a combination of high sensitivity anthropogenous influence to enough high accuracy of definition. Besides for their definition highly skilled experts as are not required at use as indicators of vegetation, fauna, and for microflora also difficult methods. The convenient mechanism of revealing of anthropogenous processes the integrated parameter of biological properties of the has proved.

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