Saturday, 15 July 2006

Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Relation to Tractor Tillage and Bio-Residues in Fodder Production Systems.

Banwari Lal Suman, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, 284 003, India

Plants being primary producer of organic matter supply large quantity of organic residues for crop production on arable areas. However, animal and human being are secondary source of organic matter, because first they attach plant tissues and contribute waste products in natural cycle. The earthworm termites and ants play translocation of soil and plant residues. Much of the effort was made in 20th century for linear increase of food, fodder and other associated commodities by supplying various fertilizers inputs. Besides the irrigation input much of change taken place in use of human and livestock energy and occupied by mechanical and chemical sources. Thus conventional and reduced tillage's were compared for better management of insitu bio-residues produced on field boundaries. Application of cereal + legume residues in combination with urea fertilizer not only enhance the green and dry fodder production of sorghum and oats in rainy and winter seasons respectively (Fig 1,2). But they  could also enhance/improve the physico-chemical properties of clay loam soils of Bundelkhand in India. Thus due to application of these bio-residues  carbon/nitrogen ratio of  soil become improve to the much extent in last five years and bring down the C:N ratio fro 20:1 to 12:1 to 14:1 in different treatments. To overcome the nitrate depression period ˝ dose of required nitrogen was advocated by supply through urea fertilizer. Thus for intensive cultivation of field for food –fodder production under tractor tillage systems require due attention with twin objectives : harvesting of enriched food and fodder crops and maintaining sustainability of soil.  Thus over the years application of cereal (wheat) and legume (subabool i.e. Leucaena leucocephala) biomass could increase green, dry fodder production and maintain the sustainability of soil by improving the OC%, total and available N, P and K. The overall effect of mechanical tillage could also influence the yield levels, microbial population as well as biomass due to tractor tillage and bio-residues application.

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