The prosperity of disadvantaged rural regions depends on the integrity, quality, and proper management practices of their natural resources (water, soils, forestry). In a number of rural regions in Mexico and Chile, marginal rural communities are living in mountain areas with volcanic soils deteriorated as a consequence of high population pressure. Subsistence agriculture, small scale production, scarcity of agricultural land, destruction of the environment by deforestation causing soil erosion and migration to the cities are the causes of rural poverty. The rehabilitation of indurated volcanic soils for agricultural use provokes a decrease of pH-values, an imbalance between Mg2+ and K+, an accumulation of SOC and an increment of the C/N ratio, in addition to a severe N-loss due to the increase of runoff and sediment transport of recent rehabilitated indurated surfaces. An accumulation of available P has been observed, as well as an increase of values of Ca2+ and Na+ in 2005. Sites fertilized with organic matter products surprisingly did not show better yields in relation to controls. Recently rehabilitated ex-indurated surfaces showed a fourfold increment of runoff and soil losses compared with sites rehabilitated 14 years ago. Results from the REVOLSO Project look for the improvement of the life standard of the campesinos through the rehabilitation and better management of degraded environment of their rural areas. Soil rehabilitation is done through sustainable agriculture and agroforestry, keeping in mind the actual campesino's demands. REVOLSO involves to the campesinos in solving the scientific and technological problems, looking for the best practice for a sustainable agriculture-technology. The dissemination of the results among the rural communities and the follow up of implementation and the acceptance of the proposed new-technology package is essential to achieve sustainable socio-economical development of those rural communities.