Blueberry Fungi under Different Soil Conditions in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.
Beatriz A. Pérez1, Gervasio Carboni2, and Julio M. Sánchez2. (1) INTA-IMYZA-Castelar, Las Cabañas y De Los Reseros CC 25, Castelar, Argentina, (2) INTA-CIRN-Instituto de Suelos, Las Cabañas y De Los Reseros CC 25, Castelar, Argentina
Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) crops had expanded from southwestern Andean region of Argentina (Comarca Andina, 42° parallel) in Chubut and Rio Negro provinces toward new areas in the north including Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, San Luis provinces, among others. The objective of this paper was to know the soil characteristics of some of the Buenos Aires locations (La Plata, Lima, Mercedes, San Pedro, Tandil, Tomás Jofre, Zarate) where disease surveys were conducted. Laboratory analysis allowed identified root fungi (Fusarium, Phytophthora) in different varieties. In 2005, crown gall disease was detected in young (1-3 year-old) to 8 year-old plantations in several locations of Buenos Aires province. These soils are included into the continental plains with undulations and heavy pampean loess, eolian deposits, mean annual temperature and precipitations are 16ºC and 1,000 mm, respectively (SMN, 1971-2000). In Mercedes, Typic Argiudolls (IHDT), Mercedes series in low hills with agriculture land capability (Ap-A-AB-Bt1-Bt2-Bt3-BC-2C profile sequence), high organic matter up to 35 cm, silt loam, without salt and sodium, average permeability-drainage and few limitations for agriculture. Typic Natraqualfs (JADG), Gowland series, depressive areas, hydric morphology, sodium, and severe limitations for agriculture. San Pedro soils are Vertic Argiudolls (IHDF), Ramallo series, in low hills and slopes with agriculture land capability (Ap-A-B-Bt1ss-Bt2-BC-Cc), salt, organic matter up to 50 cm, silt loam, moderately well drainage, without salt or sodium, slow permeability, high expandable clay content (40-50%) under Bt1s horizon, high plasticity in wet and hard in dry conditions affecting root development. Tomas Jofre soils have Typic Argialbolls (IABG), Suipacha series, in low hills, livestock land capability (milk production), (Apc-A-Ec-Btc1-Btc2-BCc-C), high organic matter up to 35 cm, silt loam, slow drainage and permeability, water excess after heavy rains, moderate alkalinity from 35 cm of depth, no salinity, associated to Typic Natraqualfs, Gowland series, hydromorphic in low areas, presence of sodium and limitations for agriculture use. Arrecifes series are Typic Argiudolls, hills and 2-3% slopes with moderate to severe erosion, agriculture land use, deep (Ap-BAt-Bt1-Bt2-BC1-BC2-C), high organic matter up to 35 cm, silty clay loam, without salt or sodium, average permeability, and drainage, susceptible to hydric erosion (agriculture restriction). The soils of Zarate and Lima are Vertic Argiudolls, Solis series, include hills, slopes with erosion and agriculture land use, deep (Ap-A-AB-Bt1-Bt2-BC-C), high organic matter up to 40 cm, silty clay loam, good drainage, without salt or sodium, high expandible clay content (58%) in Bt1-Bt2 horizons. La Plata soiIs are plain, Aquic Paleudolls (IHCE), Magdalena series in high plains, deep (A-Bt1-Bt2ss-BCc-C), slow permeability and drainage, Typic Paleudolls (IHCH), Etcheverry series in high areas, deep, (Ap-A-AB-Bt1ss-Bt2c-BCck-C), poor to average drainage, both with high organic matter up to 40 cm, without salt or sodium, agriculture-livestock land use, high clay content (47-60%) in Bt, poor drainage in Magdalena series. In low areas, Typic Natraqualfs, Poblet series, with hydromorphic and sodium limitations. The south of Tandil includes hill areas, Piedmont undulate, loess over tosca-rock, annual mean temperature and precipitations of 14ºC and 900 mm, respectively, Typic Argiudolls, Tandil series, undulate hills and slopes, deep (A-BAt-Bt-BC-C) average drainage and permeability, organic matter up to 45 cm, clay loam, agriculture land use, susceptible to hydric erosion. Typic Paleudolls, Azul series, small slopes, moderately deep (Ap-A-BAtn-Bt-BC-2Ckm) over carbonate calcium, average drainage and permeability, high organic matter up to 45 cm, clay loam, agriculture land use. Other soils are Lithic Hapludolls (IHFA), Sierra de los Padres series, hills and rocks, and Argiaquic Argialbolls (IABD), Napaleofu series, in low areas with flooding (Soil Taxonomy, 2003).