Saturday, 15 July 2006

Biodegradation of the Soil Caused by the Man in River Basin Amajac, Hidalgo, Mexico.

Enrique Rubinos Sr.1, Carmen Gutierres Castorena1, Patricio Sanchez Guzman1, Jesus Amado Alvarez1, and RAFAEL ZUÑIGA Sr.2. (1) Instituto de Educacion , investigacion en Ciencias Agricolas del Esdtado de Mexico, Apartado Postal 1-142, Gomez Palcio, 35000, Mexico, (2) DURANGO UNIVERSITY, ALEJANDRIA 470, TORREON, 27250, Mexico


SUMMARY. The shortage of water and agricultural areas for the development of agriculture in the Central part of the State of Hidalgo, requires to use the talent to take advantage of the resources the region. The Amajac River, crosses the central part of the State of Hidalgo Mexico, initiating with 22 small expenses from 3 to lps in the tributary ones of the same one, arriving at San Juan Amajaque 2275 lps at the times from low water; where in addition the land in general is very rough but with great amounts of good substrate (tezontle red), reason why the technique of hidroponía is an additional option to supply of foods to the population, or to produce income-producing cultures like the rosal and the flowers. For that reason the objective of this study requires to characterize the amount and quality of this resource (12 parameters) to establish the basic concentrations on the handling of the hidropónica nutritious solution. During cycles 2004-2005, 18 points were located (with a GPS) on the Amajac River, where 54 samples were taken from water in three dates different for their corresponding analysis from laboratory. In solutions for hidroponía, the mutual relation between ions must be balanced in its macronutrimentos: NO3 -, H2PO4 -, SO4 2 -, K+, Ca 2+ and Mg2+. The obtained results average indicate that the waters of the Amajac River, contain losses amounts: 0.19, 0,009 and 0,378 meq l-1, of nitrates, phosphates and sulphates, respectively, reason why requires a contribution of 11,81, 0,999 and 6,622 meq l-1 of such anions; whereas of cations 0,39, 1,97 and 2,28 were quantified meq l-1de potassium calcium and magnesium, being necessary to contribute 6,61, 7,03, and 1,72 meq l to obtain a nutritious solution equivalent to the proposal by Steiner. The highest concentrations of Electrical Conductivity (0,86 and 0,70 ds M-1) correspond to waters spilled of grottos of Tolantongo (400 lps) and in the Amajac river (228 lps) before arriving at the town of the same name. PH average of the water was 7.42. Key words: Diagnosis hydric resources, hidrológica river basin, GIS, fertirrigación.

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