Saturday, 15 July 2006

The Effect of Green Revolution Technology during the Period of 1970-2003 on Sawah Soil Properties in Java, Indonesia in Relation to the Land Management Practices.

Darmawan Darmawan1, Kazutake Kyuma2, Arsil Saleh3, H. Subagjo3, Tsugiyuki Masunaga4, and Toshiyuki Wakatsuki5. (1) Shimane Univ, Nishikawatsu, Matsue-shi, Matsue, Japan, (2) Kyoto Univ, 1-79 Nagatani-cho, Iwakura, Sakyo-ku Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan, (3) Center for Soil and Agroclimatic Research and Development, Jl. Gajah Mada, Bogor, Indonesia, (4) Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane Univ, 19-25 Shoohokudai, Matsue, 6908504, Japan, (5) Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki Univ, 2-3-22 Tomio, Nara, 631-8505, Japan

Many countries reported that the Green Revolution (GR) caused some adverse effects on agricultural lands, but no such report came from Indonesia. In order to evaluate the effect of GR on sawah soil in Indonesia, a comparative study between seedfarms, where GR technology has been continuously applied, and non-seedfarms was done in Java as a pioneer of adoption of this new technology. Soil samples collected by Kawaguchi and Kyuma in 1970 and the new samples taken in 2003 from the same sites or the sites close to the 1970 sampling sites were analyzed and compared. For 40 sites compared, the land use pattern of sawah in seedfarms and non-seedfarms were found very similar and just increase in cultivation intensity in last three decades. The soil properties in 0 20 cm soils layer changed more than in 0 100 cm soil layer for all parameters observed. The mean values of Total Carbon (TC) and Total Nitrogen (TN), exchangeable acidity and available Phosphorus (P) contents increased significantly from 31.910.6 to 40.412.8 Mg ha-1; 3.041.10 to 3.971.08 Mg ha-1; 9.33.09 to 13.23.7 kmolc ha-1 and 136.6154.7 to 255.7292.4 kg P2O5 ha-1, respectively. The mean soil pH and exchangeable sodium (Na) decreased significantly from 6.900.77 to 5.840.90 and from 3.282.76 to 1.672.06 kmolc ha-1, respectively. There were no significant differences found for exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC) within the period of study. The land management difference between seedfarm and non-seedfarm affected the change pattern of those soils properties. The TC and TN contents in 0 20 cm soil layer in seedfarm increased by 4.7 Mg ha-1 and 0.8 Mg ha-1, which were lower than those in non-seedfarm that increased by 11.6 Mg ha-1 and 1.0 Mg ha-1, respectively. The available P content increased by 194 kg P2O5 ha-1 in seedfarm and 57 kg P2O5 ha-1 in non-seedfarm; while the soil pH decreased by 1.25 and 0.90 followed by declining of exchangeable Na by 1.42 and 1.77 kmolc ha-1 in respective sites. The exchangeable K content in seedfarm was increased slightly, but decreased significantly in non-seedfarm by 0.30 kmolc ha-1. These results showed long term cultivation of rice and upland crop in rotation pattern in non-seedfarms seemed more sustainable than monoculture with heavy chemical fertilizers in seedfarms which tends to lead to acidification and accumulation of P in soil. Key words: available phosphorus, exchangeable acidity, exchangeable cations, green revolution and Java.

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