Effect of Anthropic Activities on Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Different Soil Uses.
Jose A. Acosta, Ángel Faz Cano, and Silvia Martínez-Martínez. Technical University of Cartagena, Area of Edafology and Agricultural Chemistry. Department of Agrarian Science and Technology, Paseo Alfonso XIII, nº 52, 30230, Cartagena. Murcia. Spain, Cartagena, Spain
The objective of the study was to determine the effect and severity of heavy metal contamination coming from anthropic activities in different soil uses including urban, industrial 1 and 2, agricultural, sites without use and undisturbed areas of the Murcia city and surrounding (SE Spain). We examined the present degree of heavy metal concentration in 221 topsoil samples place in the city and, the differences among 5 soil uses were analyzed. The studied metals were Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd. The highest levels of Cr, Cd and Pb are in the industrial area 2, being respectively of 9.1, 3.34 and 2334 mg/kg. The highest concentration of Zn is located in the industrial area 1, with a value of 135.41 mg/kg. On the other hand, the samples with more degree of contamination for Ni and Cu are in the agricultural area whose concentrations are 10.29 and 64.90 mg/kg, respectively. Finally, the sampling point with highest concentration of Mn is placed in a site without use. Therefore, the natural and urban uses do not present any maximum level for these metals. Starting with the chromium, soil from the natural use and the other uses contain different amounts of Cr. The chromium concentration in the industrial area 1 is higher than in the industrial area 2 and in the urban use, being similar to the one generated in the agricultural area. In a same way, all the uses present higher nickel levels than the natural use. The present nickel in the industrial area 1 is statistically higher than in the rest of uses. Highlight that the nickel concentration in agricultural use do not differ with the nickel concentration in urban, without use and industrial 2 uses. The natural use presents lowest levels of manganese. The Mn concentration in the industrial area 1 is higher than in the rest of uses. On the other hand, industrial area 2 has the same level that the agricultural and urban areas, while the use agricultural shows higher values than the urban one. In the case of the copper, as much the natural use as the urban and industrial 1 uses have the same concentration. Copper concentrations in agricultural area, industrial area 2 and areas without use appear to be similar; being in these uses where the anthropic action affects. The lowest zinc concentration is in the natural use. The zinc levels in agricultural, industrial 1 and 2 soils are statistically similar. While, zinc concentration are same in the urban use as without use zones. The industrial area 2 presents the highest concentrations of Cd of the whole study area, it doesn't show significant differences with the urban, agricultural, industrial 1 uses and areas without use. Differences only exist with the natural areas. On the other hand, industrial 1 and agricultural activities show an important difference with urban use for this element. Lead concentration is very similar among the soil uses, since differences don't exist among the natural use and the rest soil uses. There being higher levels in the agricultural and industrial 2 uses.