Organic Rice Production for Export by Integrated Management under Sustainable Agriculture Concept.
Niyomtham B. and Niyomtham V., Rajamangala University of Technology Essan, Kalasin Campus and Kalasin Pithayasan School, Kalasin Province, Thailand
The concept of sustainable agriculture in Thailand is the coexistence of various agricultural activities that are friendly to natural resources and farmers are sufficient and secure of food. The most productive region for Thai Organic Hom Mali Rice is in the north and northeastern province. The products are rather unique that are: (1) Small scale of production due to labour intensive production technology; (2) Increasing soil fertility without destroying soil; (3) Utilizing high level of in-farm input. This research has as its objective to compare the yield and return of organic rice production in difference cultivations in two soil fertility levels by integrated agriculture for high quality of organic rice exportation under sustainable agriculture concept. The experiments were conducted in farmer's rainfed lowland rice at Kalasin, Roi-et and Mahasarakam province in northeast Thailand between May to October 2003. The RCBD was used to study the effects of 8 different cultivation in two soil fertility levels. The results showed that all treatments yielded significant differences. Hom Mali rice variety (Orgza sativa L.,KDML.105) was respond to green manure fertilizer and pig manure fertilizer. In medium soil fertility level, using green manure fertilizer with transplanting cultivation gave highest average grain yield of 3,218 kg ha-1 and net return of 13,950 baht ha-1 (348.75 US dollars ; 40 baht = 1 US dollar). Soil fertility indexes obtained with all treatments were increase and these indexs indicated the good residues effect on soil fertility, which according to sustainable griculture concept.