34-4 Crop Rotation and Cultural Practice Impact on Soil Residual Nitrogen.
Monday, October 23, 2017: 8:50 AM
Marriott Tampa Waterside, Florida Salon IV
Crop rotation and cultural practice may influence soil residual N available for environmental loss due to crop N uptake and N immobilization. We evaluated the effects of stacked vs. alternate-year crop rotations and cultural practices on soil residual N (NH4-N and NO3-N contents) at the 0-125 cm depth, annualized crop N uptake, and N balance from 2005 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA. Stacked rotations were durum-durum-canola-pea (DDCP) and durum-durum-flax-pea (DDFP). Alternate-year rotations were durum-canola-durum-pea (DCDP) and durum-flax-durum-pea (DFDP). A continuous durum (CD) was also included for comparison. Cultural practices were traditional (conventional tillage, recommended seeding rate, broadcast N fertilization, and reduced stubble height) and ecological (no-tillage, increased seeding rate, banded N fertilization, and increased stubble height) systems. Compared with other crop rotations, annualized crop biomass N was greater with DCDP and DDCP in 2007 and 2009, but was greater with DDFP than DCDP in 2011. Annualized grain N was greater with DCDP than CD, DFDP, and DDFP and greater in the ecological than the traditional practice in 2010 and 2011. Soil NH4-N content was greater with CD than other crop rotations in the traditional practice at 0-5 cm, but was greater with DDCP than CD and DDFP in the ecological practice at 50-88 cm. Soil NO3-N content was greater with CD than other crop rotations at 5-10 cm, but was greater with CD and DFDP than DCDP and DDCP at 10-20, 88-125, and 0-125 cm. Nitrate-N content at 88-125 and 0-125 cm was also greater with the traditional than the ecological practice. Nitrogen balance based on N inputs and outputs was greater with crop rotations than CD. Increased N fertilization rate increased soil residual N with CD, but legume N fixation increased N balance with crop rotations. Legume-based crop rotations reduced N input and soil residual N available for environmental loss, especially in the ecological practice, by increasing crop N uptake and N immobilization compared with nonlegume monocrop.