Quality of the Water in Rio Amajac, Hidalgo, Mexico, for the Handling of the Nutritious Solution in Hidroponia.
Jesus Amado, Enrique Rubinos Pantal, Fransisco Gavi Reyes, and Enrique Mejia Zaens. Colegio de Posgraduados, Apartado Postal 1-142, Gomez Palacio, 35000, Mexico
The shortage of water and agricultural areas for the development of agriculture in the Central part of the State of Hidalgo, requires to use the talent to take advantage of the resources the region. The Amajac River, crosses the central part of the State of Hidalgo Mexico, initiating with 22 small expenses from 3 to lps in the tributary ones of the same one, arriving at San Juan Amajaque 2275 lps at the times from low water; where in addition the land in general is very rough but with great amounts of good substrate (tezontle red). This is why the technique of hydroponía is an additional option to supply food to the population, or to produce income-producing cultures like the rosal and the flowers. For that reason, the objective of this study involved characterizing the amount and quality of soil and land resources (12 parameters) to evaluate the basic capacity of this land resource to handling of the hydropónica nutrient solution. During the 2004-2005 period, 18 points were located (with a GPS) on the Amajac River, where 54 samples were taken from water during three different dates for laboratory analyses. In solutions for hydroponía, a balance in the following macronutrients must be achieved: NO3 -, H2PO4 -, SO4 2 -, K+, Ca 2+ and Mg2+. Results indicate that the waters of the Amajac River, contain on the average the following nutrient levels: 0.19, 0.009 and 0.378 meq l-1, of nitrates, phosphates and sulphates, respectively, but requires a contribution of 11.81, 0.999 and 6.622 meq l-1 of such anions; concentrations of cations measured in the Amajac River were 0.39, 1.97 and 2.28 meq l-1 for potassium, calcium, and magnesium. These would need to be 6.61, 7.03, and 1.72 meq l-1 to obtain a nutrient solution equivalent to the proposal by Steiner. The highest measurements of electrical conductivity were 0.86 ds m-1 of the superficial waters flowing from the cavern of Tulantongö (400 l sec-1),and 0.70 ds m-1 of water in the Amajac river (228 l sec-1),before arriving at the town of Santa Maria Amajac, Hidalgo , Mexico. The pH values averaged 7.4.
Key words: Diagnosis hydric resources, hydrológica river basin, GIS, fertirrigación.