108-4 Use of Soil Properties to Predict Ammonia Volatilization and the Germination of Rice Under Aerobic Soil Conditions.

Poster Number 991

See more from this Division: S04 Soil Fertility & Plant Nutrition
See more from this Session: Nitrogen and Crop Production: II
Monday, November 1, 2010
Long Beach Convention Center, Exhibit Hall BC, Lower Level
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Van Haden1, Jing Xiang2, Shaobing Peng3, Peter Hobbs4, Quirine Ketterings5 and John Duxbury4, (1)Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
(2)Huazhong Agricultural University, Huazhong, China
(3)International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, PHILIPPINES
(4)Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
(5)Dept. of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Recent studies indicate that direct-seeded aerobic rice can suffer injury from ammonia toxicity when urea is applied at seeding. Urea application rate and soil properties can influence the buildup of ammonia in the vicinity of recently sown seed and hence influence the risk of ammonia toxicity. The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the effects of urea N rate on ammonia volatilization and subsequent seed germination for a range of soils; (2) establish a critical level for ammonia toxicity in germinating rice seeds; and (3) assess how variation in soil properties among the soils influences ammonia accumulation. Volatilized ammonia and seed germination were measured in two micro-diffusion incubations using fifteen soils to which urea was applied at 5 rates (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 g N kg-1). Progressively higher urea rates increased volatilization and decreased germination on all soils, indicating a critical level for ammonia toxicity of approximately 8 mg N kg-1. Stepwise regression of the first three principal components indicated that the initial pH and soil texture components influenced ammonia volatilization when no N was added. At the intermediate N rate all three components (initial pH, soil texture and pH buffering) affected ammonia volatilization. At the highest N rate, ammonia volatilization was driven by soil texture and pH buffering while the role of initial pH was insignificant. For soils with an initial pH > 6.0 the risk of excessive volatilization increased dramatically when clay content was < 15%, cation exchange capacity (CEC) was < 10 cmolc kg-1, and the buffer capacity (BC) was < 2.5 cmolc kg-1 pH-1. These findings suggest that initial pH, CEC, soil texture and BC should all be used to assess the site-specific risks of urea-induced ammonia toxicity in aerobic rice.
See more from this Division: S04 Soil Fertility & Plant Nutrition
See more from this Session: Nitrogen and Crop Production: II