Runoff losses of nutrients and sediment pose significant threats to surface water quality. Information is needed regarding relative losses of nutrients from poultry wastes, with or without incorporation, as compared to commercial fertilizers, especially for claypan soils in southeastern Kansas. The objectives of this study were: i) to compare surface runoff losses of nutrients and sediment from turkey litter manure and fertilizer and ii) to determine the influence of tillage on nutrient and sediment losses in surface runoff from the use of turkey litter. The experiment was conducted from 2011 through spring 2013 near Girard, KS. The soil was a Parsons silt loam overlying a claypan B horizon. The treatments were: 1) control – no fertilizer or turkey litter applied: no-till, 2) fertilizer – only commercial fertilizer to supply N and P with no turkey litter: conventional tillage , 3) turkey litter (N based) – turkey litter applications to supply all N [that also provides excess P]: no-till, 4) turkey litter (N based) – turkey litter applications to supply all N [that also provides excess P]: conventional tillage, and 5) turkey litter (P based) – turkey litter applications to supply all P with supplemental fertilizer N: conventional tillage. Losses of NH4-N, NO3-N, and sediment were unaffected by treatment. Total N losses were greater in the N-based turkey litter/no-till treatment with no differences in total N loss from the other treatments. Ortho-P losses accounted for approximately 70% of the total P loss and both were affected by a treatment by year interaction. Ortho- and total P losses were statistically unaffected by treatment in the first year, but P loss in the second year from the N-based turkey litter/no-till treatment was more than twice that from the other treatments. During the first two years of this study, incorporation of the high rate, N-based turkey litter resulted in annual nutrient losses that were not different than losses from treatments receiving a lower rate, P-based turkey litter application or only fertilizer.